Caption: Health systems framework, based on WHO building blocks and desired outcomes
Health systems research
Health systems are defined by WHO as “all organizations, people and actions whose primary intent is to promote, restore or maintain health” with the overall goal of improving health and health equity, in ways that are responsive, financially fair, and make the best, or most efficient, use of available resources. The essential building blocks of a health system are service delivery; health workforce; information; medical products, vaccines and technologies; financing; and leadership and governance (stewardship). Health systems research can, therefore, cover many areas.
- Blanchet K, Gilbert C, de Savigny D. Rethinking eye health systems to achieve universal coverage: the role of research. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014 Oct;98(10):1325-8. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2013-303905. Epub 2014 Jul 2. Abstract.
- Blanchet K, Gordon I, Gilbert CE, Wormald R, Awan H. How to achieve universal coverage of cataract surgical services in developing countries: lessons from systematic reviews of other services. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2012 Dec;19(6):329-39. doi: 10.3109/09286586.2012.717674. Epub 2012 Oct 22. Abstract.
- Knight A, Lindfield R. The relationship between socio-economic status and access to eye health services in the UK: a systematic review. Public Health. 2015 Feb;129(2):94-102. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2014.10.011. Epub 2015 Feb 12. Abstract.
- Lindfield R. Cataract services: ensuring access for everyone. Community Eye Health. 2014;27(85):1-3. No abstract available.
Quality of care
Eye care services need to provide services of high quality with respect to clinical as well as non-clinical care so that patients maximally benefit, are not harmed and are satisfied with the services they receive. Interventions which improve quality of care can be challenging to implement, as they require attitudinal as well as behavioural change.
- Lindfield R. Improving the quality of cataract surgery. Community Eye Health. 2014;27(85):9-11. No abstract available.
- Mearkle R, Bwonya D, Lindfield R. Improving quality by improving safety. Community Eye Health. 2014;27(88):72. No abstract available.
- Lindfield R. The value of clinical audit to improve cataract quality. Community Eye Health. 2014;27(87):55. No abstract available.
- Lindfield R, Knight A, Bwonya D. An approach to assessing patient safety in hospitals in low-income countries. PLoS One. 2015 Apr 20;10(3):e0121628. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121628. eCollection 2015. Abstract.