Peek system studies and trials for school and community programmes

Smartphone-based screening for visual impairment in Kenyan school children

The Lancet Global Health

Childhood visual impairment is a major public health concern that requires effective screening and early intervention. We investigated the effectiveness of Peek school eye health, a smartphone-based sight test and referral system versus standard care.

The Lancet Global Health VOLUME 6, ISSUE 8, PE924-E932, AUGUST 01, 2018

Prevalence and causes of visual impairment among schoolchildren in Mekelle, Ethiopia

Cogent Medicine

The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment (VI), among primary school children in Mekelle, Ethiopia and the feasibility of teachers conducting vision screening in school using a smart phone application: Peek Acuity.

Cogent Medicine, 5:1, 1-9, DOI: 10.1080/2331205X.2018.1554832


Spectacle Compliance and Its Determinants in a School Vision Screening Pilot in Botswana

Ophthalmic Epidemiology

“The effectiveness of school eye health programmes relies on many factors, including compliance with spectacle wear. The objectives of this study were to determine spectacle compliance in a school vision screening pilot programme in Botswana, and investigate factors predictive of compliance.”

Ophthalmic Epidemiology, DOI: 10.1080/09286586.2018.1523441


Study protocol: Effectiveness of a novel mobile health education intervention (Peek)


“The hypothesis is that higher proportion of children with uncorrected refractive errors in schools allocated to the Peek educational package will wear their spectacles 3–4 months after they are dispensed, and a higher proportion of children identified with other eye conditions will access services, compared with schools receiving standard school screening…”

Trials 2017 18:168

From research to scaling-up programs: case study of Peek school eye health program in Trans-Nzoia…

Journal of Ophthalmology of Eastern Central and Southern Africa

“There are barriers to accessing eye health services by children especially in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC), where the prevalence of visual impairment is highest. We report the process of scaling up the Peek school screening program that was initially tested in a randomized clinical trial in Trans-Nzoia county, Kenya…”

TheJournal of Ophthalmology of Eastern, Central and Southern Africa, 24(1) (July 2020)

Peek Community Eye Health – mHealth system to increase access and efficiency of eye health services

BMC Trials

“We aim to evaluate a M-health system (Peek CEH) geared towards reducing avoidable blindness through early identification and improved adherence to referral for those with eye problems and reducing demand at secondary care for conditions that can be managed effectively at primary care level.”

BMC Trials volume 20, Article number: 502 (2019)


Implementing a School Vision Screening Program in Botswana Using Smartphone Technology

Telemedicine and e-Health

“Child eye health is a significant public health issue in low- and middle-income countries, such as Botswana, and the need for eye care requires a well-integrated and innovative approach. Traditional vision screening tools are costly, difficult to transport, and reliant on highly trained eye care professionals. Novel smartphone-based vision screening technologies, however, are low cost, portable, and easily operated by trained novice users. Peek Vision is a mobile health (m-Health) organization that creates smartphone applications that screen for visual acuity, generate referrals to eye care professionals, and send phone notifications to those being screened.”

Telemedicine and e-Health


Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness: looking back, looking forward

British Journal of Ophthalmology

“The Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness, or RAAB, is a relatively simple and low-cost survey methodology to provide data on the prevalence and causes of visual loss. The aim of this article is to reflect on the achievements and challenges of RAAB, and to describe the future developments that are needed to ensure that it remains a relevant and widely used tool. To date, at least 331 RAABs have been undertaken in 79 countries, and these surveys provide an important source of information on visual loss at both the local and global level…”

British Journal of Ophthalmology